Cooling from ice changing into salt water with both below freezing
This is a major breakthrough in understanding Polar cooling.
Polar oceans are cooled by ice that is too cold to melt. The ice disappears into the polar oceans and becomes cold water at temperatures below freezing.
Turbulent Salt water pulls protons out of the ice and changes the surface ice layers to EZ layers that slide off and those layers break up in turbulent water and become bulk water molecules even while below the freezing point. This happens faster in freezing water than ice melts at the freezing point in even warmer water. If water cannot melt below freezing, this is about the only other answer.
There is not many people who will really understand this unless they have heard Gerald Pollack present his "Fourth Phase of Water Presentation" or read his book. This is how polar ice sheets disappear into salt water that is colder than freezing and help cool the oceans. Multiple people, including geologists, climate scientists and engineers, have told me ice only melts at the freezing temperature. Climate scientists have told that melting ice does little cooling and it is not considered in their theory or models. This process is more like dissolving than melting, but it does huge cooling.
This is 2017, science is settled, and very few understand how salt helps turn ice into water, even below the freezing point, go figure. Very few can explain how a ice cream freezer works with salt and ice that turns to water below the melting point of ice. That is until Gerald Pollack explained EZ water. Even if Gerald Pollack's theory is wrong, we still know that, somehow, salt in water allows, and/or causes, ice to become water while both are below freezing.
This is how ice changes into water below freezing temperature and helps cool the earth. They neglect the cooling by melting because they underestimate how much dissolving happens. They don't know, they don't even have a clue. When oceans are coldest, they are most ice covered so they cannot radiate to space, so they must be cooled by the turbulent polar salt water pulling layers of ice off by pulling out protons so the layers just slide into the turbulent polar salt water that is below freezing. The oceans are cooled the most when the extent of the ice shelves and sea ice is a maximum. The oceans are cooled the least when extent of the ice shelves and sea ice is a minimum. The albedo accounts for part of the cooling, maybe less than half, maybe half. I believe near half.
Ice shelves and sea ice cools polar salt oceans the same way ice turns to colder water and freezes ice cream even while the ice gets too cold to melt and the same way ice turns to colder water on salted ice roads. Everyone knows that these last two things do happen. Polar cooling works the same way. You can understand it or not, but it happens. Nobody ever calculated cooling from ice turning into salt water the way it works in an ice cream freezer or on an icy road. Nobody has ever calculated the cooling from ice extent correctly. Nobody knew to do that. Put this in your models and try again. This does wreck havoc with everyone's correlations up to this point.
As we came out of the Little Ice Age, as ice extent decreased, this cooling from the ice changing to salt water, with both still below freezing, did cooling that diminished as the ice extent decreased. Nobody has taken this into account before. This cooling process and albedo together, explain most of what has happened to earth's temperature over the past fifty million years.